Ion implantation is low-temperature process by which ions of one element are accelerated into a solid target, thereby changing the physical, chemical, or electrical properties of the target. The components of ion implantation are often made of TZM, molybdenum, tungsten because these materials could perform well in the harsh environment.
Ion implantation is a booming and widely-used high technology of material surface modification in the world for nearly 30 years. Due to its unique and outstanding advantages, the high technology has an extremely widespread application in the doped semiconductor material, the surface modification of metal, ceramics, polymers, etc, which obtained the huge economic and social benefit.
In the electronic industry, ion implantation has become one of the important doping techniques in the microelectronic craft; also, it is an important means of controlling the MOSFET threshold voltage. So it can be said that ion implantation is a kind of indispensable means in the manufacture of the large scale integrated circuit in contemporary.
The method of ion implantation is accelerating in a vacuum and low temperature, thus the impurity ions with a kinetic energy can go directly into semiconductor; at the same time it also can produce some lattice defects in the semiconductor, these defects should be eliminated with low-temperature annealing or laser annealing after ion injection. The impurity concentration of ion implantation generally distributes as Gaussian distribution, and the highest concentration is not on the surface but within a certain depth.
The advantages of ion implantation are that it can control the total dose of impurities, the distribution of depth and uniformity of surface precisely, moreover, the low-temperature process of which can avoid the original impurities and diffusion, etc. At the same time, it can realize the goal of developing the alignment technology to reduce the capacitance effect.