Cadmium is not a necessary element of the body and is an environmental pollutant. In general, excessive consumption of cadmium can lead to cadmium poisoning. The World Health Organization (WHO) lists cadmium as a major food pollutant; the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies cadmium as a human carcinogen and can cause serious health damage to humans; Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) listed cadmium as the seventh material to harm human health.
Cadmium is a toxic element and its compounds are more toxic. It existed in the form of compounds and did not meet with human life, but the industrial revolution released the demon. Some studies have estimated that there are 22,000 tonnes of cadmium entering the soil each year. Cadmium compounds have different toxicity in nature, cadmium sulfide and cadmium selenium sulfonic acid is less toxic while cadmium oxide, cadmium chloride, and cadmium sulfate are highly toxic.
The average dose of cadmium poisoning is 100mg. The main symptoms of acute poisoning are nausea, salivation, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and then central nerve poisoning. Patients with severe poisoning can die from collapse.
Subchronic and chronic toxicity
When the environment is polluted by cadmium, the cadmium can accumulate in organisms and cause chronic poisoning through the food chain. The biological half-life of cadmium is 10~30 years, and the biological enrichment is significant, even if the contact is stopped, most of the cadmium stored in the past will remain in the body.
Long-term consumption of cadmium can cause chronic kidney poisoning in the kidneys, mainly for renal tubules and glomeruli, resulting in proteinuria, amino acid urine, and glycosuria. At the same time, the cadmium ion replaces the calcium ions in the bone, thus preventing the normal deposition of calcium in the bone, and also inhibits the normal curing of the collagen, which leads to chondrosis.