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Thorium is a chemical element with symbol Th and atomic range ninety. Thorium steel is silvery and tarnishes black while uncovered to air, forming the dioxide; it's far gentle, malleable, and has a high melting factor. Thorium is an electropositive actinide, whose chemistry is ruled through the +4 oxidation kingdom; it's far quite reactive, prone to ignition on air whilst finely divided.

Thorium is weakly radioactive: all of its acknowledged isotopes are unstable. The most solid isotope of thorium, 232Th, has a half of-lifestyles of 14.05 billion years, or about the age of the universe; it decays very slowly thru alpha decay, starting a decay chain named the thorium series that ends at stable 208Pb. Thorium is considered one of best two notably radioactive elements that still occur obviously in massive quantities as a primordial detail (the opposite being uranium). it's miles predicted to be approximately three to four instances greater considerable than uranium in the Earth's crust, and is chiefly refined from monazite sands as a ed81d2c1d705861968d8963ac974ba36 of extracting uncommon earth metals.

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